Assoc. Prof. Dr. Vera Radojkova-Nikolovska
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Vera Radojkova-Nikolovska graduated at the Faculty of Dentistry in
1988. Since 1992 she is employed at the Clinic for oral pathology and periodontology at
the University Clinical Center “St Pantelejmon” in Skopje. She is specialist in the field of
oral pathology and periodontology. In 2000, gain the title of Master of Dental Sciences
from the same area.
From 2004-2006 she was involved in the research team for the project: Assessing the
state of oral health and treatment needed at the population of the Former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia by applying the basic criteria of the World Health Organization
(WHO)”. Owns a certificate for calibration and training for collecting and displaying data
on oral health in epidemiological and scientific purposes in the Former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia.
In 2006 she obtained a certificate from the Ministry of Health and Dental Chamber of the
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, for the educator in an accredited program to
modernize the process of licensing doctors, dentists and pharmacists in the Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
In 2008, completed doctoral dissertation titled “The influence of sex hormones on
periodontal tissue affection,” which earned the title of doctor of dental science.
She was a member of the research team in the project “Relationship between oral and
genital involvement with HPV- reason for vaccination: yes or no?”
Also she was member of research team in international project between the Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Republic Slovenia entitled “Prefabricated
zirconium pegs with retentive coronary form for the restoration of endodontic treated
teeth-in vitro assessment of the treatment”
She has published many papers in national and international journals and actively
participated in several national and international seminars and conferences in the country
as well as abroad.
”AFFINITY OF HPV TO THE ORAL MUCOSA ”
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Vera Radojkova-Nikolovska, Prof. Dr. Mirjana Popovska
UKIM, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Pathology and Periodontology – Skopje,
FYR of Macedonia
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are a group of heterogeneous double-stranded, circular
DNA viruses with a predilection for squamous epithelium of the skin and mucosa. HPV
infection is the most common of all sexually transmitted diseases. It is estimated that two
thirds of those who have had sexual contact with HPV-infected persons, will become
infected. Oral HPV infection can be acquired by oral-genital contact, by mouth-to-mouth
contact, or possibly by autoinoculation and in infants by mother-to-child transmission.
The clinical manifestations and the microscopic features of HPV-associated lesions vary
with the anatomical site affected and with the genotype of the HPV. The variability of the
clinical and microscopic appearances and the course of HPV infection are governed by
the complex interactions between the specific HPV genotype, viral genetic variables, host
immune response and the phenotype of the infected epithelial cell against a background
of differing environments and life-styles. Oral HPV is predominantly acquired via sexual
transmission and oral HPV prevalence has been associated with some of sexual
behaviors. Studies have demonstrated increased HPV acquisition around sexual debut
with oral HPV prevalence of 1.5% in 12-15 year olds, 3.3% in 16-20 year olds and 4.5%-
6.9% in healthy adults. It has even been suggested that non-sexual HPV transmission
through kissing may be possible, as well as transmission during laser surgery. However,
oral HPV prevalence is lower than cervical, perhaps explained by a lower proportion in
oral-genital than genital-genital partners, but the natural history of HPV infection in the
oral cavity appears similar to cervical infections. Human papillomavirus presence in the
oral mucosa appears to be closely associated with a range of benign papillomatous
lesions. These include oral squamous cell papilloma, oral verruca vulgaris, oral codyloma
accuminatum, oral leukoplakia, lichen planus, focal epithelial hyperplasia and in many
cases oral squamous cell carcinoma. From our “point of view” as dental practitioners’ we
consider that patient education with regard to oral transmission of HPV and its possible
role in the causation of a range of oral lesions including oral cancer should be included in
future preventive strategies.